If soil erosion is not prevented, there will be no survival

Dr. Nagaraj, Agricultural Machinery Specialist

Today (December 5) is World Soil Day. Not only this day; Soil conservation should be a daily mantra throughout the year. Not only India; Degradation of agricultural topsoil continues in many countries of the world. If this is not prevented, there will be no survival for the species!
Keeping this in mind, attention should be paid to measures to maintain soil fertility along with prevention of soil erosion. In this direction, it is very important to cultivate soil conservation, grow cover crops, diversify crop rotation, use organic nutrients, build safe banks to prevent soil erosion, manage crop residues, and manage water.
Water management
It is impossible to imagine growing crops without water. But if water management is not done adequately, there is no topsoil and fertility is also destroyed. So it is essential to use it in a limited amount. Long-term waterlogging in agricultural land causes soil erosion. Once soil is degraded, revitalizing it is a very difficult task.
The rainwater
Rainwater contains valuable nutrients. It is necessary to make good use of it. If the topsoil of the farmland is hard, the rainwater will not seep into the soil and the groundwater will not increase. Instead it washes away. Therefore, it is not advisable to use heavy machinery like tamping the soil frequently. Excessive tillage is also not advisable.
An arrangement should be made so that the rain water that falls on the agricultural land stays there. For this, the construction of safe banks is necessary. Brick, cement should not be used for its construction. Grass should be encouraged to grow around soil banks. Its roots hold the soil firmly. If this is not done, there is a possibility of getting washed away by rainwater.
Everyone knows that the soil is rich in beneficial organisms. Focus should be on developing these. Prolonged waterlogging in farmland results in loss of nutrients.
Soil erosion by wind
Even if there is no vegetation on the top of the farmland for a long time, the soil is eroded by the high winds. But its process is slow. So if you grow plants that increase soil fertility, they will be covered. Fertility also increases if they are tilled before flowering and mixed with the soil. This results in substantial savings in nutrient expenditure.
Crop frequency
Many farmers have adopted monoculture. This also has adverse effects on soil fertility. Apart from this, pest infestation also increases from crop to crop. Expenditure on chemical pesticides for its control increases. So this is a vicious cycle. The only way to stop this is crop rotation. After picking one crop, one should get another crop without growing the same crop again. If this is done, soil fertility can be maintained at very low cost and pest control can be done without cost. Considerable yield can be obtained.
Soil testing is just as important as water testing. Water with excessive salinity is harmful to soil and crops. It should be processed. Attention should also be paid to this.


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